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David Legg, Ph.D.

QUESTIONING AND KNOWING THE LOGIC OF QUESTIONING IN BERNARD LONERGAN'S THEORY OF KNOWING



Principal Advisors: Dr. Rod Girle and Dr. Matthew Ogilvie
External Readers: Paul Critteneden (Univ. of Sydney) and Calvin Normore (UCLA)
University of Aukland, New Zealand

Date: 2003 ; Pages: 305+


Abstract:
The aim of this investigation is to explore and develop the Logic of Questioning as related to knowing. The central thesis of the investigation is that the practice of questioning, as expressing the human desire to know, is oriented unrestrictedly to knowing everything. The investigation recognizes that the domain of questioning is larger than the domain of knowledge, for we can always ask more questions than we can answer. It considers different models of questioning; it examines Aristotle's Logic of Questions, and discusses related concepts of ignorance, doubt, wonder, interest and attention. It traces the development of Hintikka's account of the Logic of Questioning as language-games of seeking and finding. It argues that Hintikkaís Game-Theory model is restrictive and questionable, and as such is an inadequate account of the Logic of Questioning. It provides a context for understanding Lonerganís position and argues that his logic of unrestricted questioning grounds a critical realist theory of knowledge that is coherent and verifiable.

The major part of the investigation is a close examination of the place of questioning in the strategic arguments used by Bernard Lonergan to develop a theory of knowing and being, as found in Insight: A Study of Human Understanding. It shows how Lonergan employed an unrestricted Logic of Questioning that is oriented to knowing everything about everything. It argues that questioning not only initiates a movement towards knowing that is intelligent and rational but also is the guiding methodology by which we discovery all future knowledge. It examines Lonergan's Theory of Being as the objective of an unrestricted desire to know, it discusses Lonerganís Theory of Meaning, and shows how his arguments for the existence of Transcendent Being are critically related to the practice of raising further questions. The conclusion tests his account of an unrestricted Logic of Questioning by subjecting it to a further series of questions. It outlines key features of questioning that would need to be included in any adequate account of the Logic of Questioning. In the Appendix it provides a brief sketch of Bernard Lonerganís intellectual life and discusses related aspects of his work.


Table of Contents

ABSTRACT:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS THE LOGIC OF QUESTIONING?
AIMS AND DIVISIONS 6

PART ONE:
LONERGAN'S THEORY OF QUESTIONING 9
QUESTIONING WHAT? 14
PLATO'S PARADOX OF QUESTIONING 17
THE JIGSAW PUZZLE MODEL OF QUESTIONING 18
THE SEARCHLIGHT MODEL OF QUESTIONING 21
ARISTOTLE ON QUESTIONING 24
QUESTIONING AND SOCRATIC IGNORANCE 30
THE TRANSACTIONAL MODEL OF QUESTIONING 32
QUESTIONING AND DOUBT 33
QUESTIONING AND OTHER CONCEPTS 35
A NOTE ON THEORIZING ABOUT QUESTIONING 37

PART TWO:
HINTIKKA'S THEORY OF QUESTIONING 39
HINTIKKA ON WITTGENSTEIN 40
SAYING-SHOWING AND QUESTIONING 41
LANGUAGE-GAMES AND QUESTIONING 43
THE MODEL THEORETIC VIEWPOINT 45
GAME-THEORY AND STRATEGY 48
LANGUAGE-GAMES AND GAME-THEORY 49
GAMES OF SEEKING AND FINDING 52
SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY AND QUESTIONING 54
WHY A GAME-THEORY APPROACH? 56
HINTIKKA AND THE TRANSCENDENTAL VIEWPOINT 57
A THEORY OF RESTRICTED QUESTIONING 59
CHAPTER ONE: A CONTEXT FOR UNDERSTANDING LONERGAN
AIM OF THIS CHAPTER 61
LONERGAN'S INSIGHT 62
POSITION AND COUNTER-POSITION 65
WHAT IS KNOWING? 68
EXAMINING AN EXAMPLE OF INSIGHT 70
INTROSPECTION QUESTIONED 75
EMPIRICISM REJECTED 78
UNIVERSAL DOUBT REFUTED 81
A THEORY OF CONTEXT 86

CHAPTER TWO: QUESTIONING IN LONERGAN'S THEORY OF KNOWING
AIM OF THIS CHAPTER 88
QUESTIONING AND DEFINITIONS 89
QUESTIONING AND HIGHER VIEWPOINTS 98
QUESTIONING AND INVERSE INSIGHTS 102
QUESTIONING AND PARTICULARITY 104
QUESTIONING AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD 107
A GENERAL THEORY OF EMPIRICAL METHOD 113

CHAPTER THREE:QUESTIONING IN LONERGAN'S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
AIM OF THIS CHAPTER 126
QUESTIONING AND THINGS 127
QUESTIONING AND JUDGMENT 135
QUESTIONING AND REFLECTIVE UNDERSTANDING 144
QUESTIONING AND SELF-AFFIRMATION 153
QUESTIONING AS GIVEN 176

CHAPTER FOUR: QUESTIONING IN LONERGAN'S THEORY OF BEING
AIM OF THIS CHAPTER 180
QUESTIONING AND THE NOTION OF BEING 180
QUESTIONING AND MEANING 199
THE PUZZLING NOTION OF BEING 205
QUESTIONING AND OBJECTIVITY 211

CHAPTER FIVE: QUESTIONING IN LONERGAN'S THEORY OF TRANSCENDENCE
AIM OF THIS CHAPTER 221
QUESTIONING AND TRANSCENDENCE 221
QUESTIONING AS UNRESTRICTED DESIRE TO KNOW 226
QUESTIONING AND TRANSCENDENT KNOWLEDGE 229
QUESTIONING AND CAUSALITY 240
QUESTIONING AND TRANSCENDENT BEING 248
CONCLUSION: A THEORY OF QUESTIONING 262
A TEST 264
A QUESTION TO SOLVE 273
A PORTRAIT OF QUESTIONING 277
APPENDIX: AN INTELLECTUAL LIFE 289
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 298
ENDNOTES: 305
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